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Hubble's law

Physical cosmology Universe · Big Bang Age of the universe Timeline of the Big Bang Ultimate fate of the universe Inflation · Nucleosynthesis GWB · Neutrino background Cosmic microwave background Redshift · Hubble's law Metric expansion of space Friedmann equations FLRW metric Shape of the universe Structure formation Reionization Galaxy formation Large-scale structure Galaxy filament Lambda-CDM model Dark energy · Dark matter Dark fluid · Dark flow Timeline of cosmological theories Future of an expanding universe Observational cosmology 2dF · SDSS COBE · BOOMERanG · WMAP · Planck v d e Hubble's law is the name for the astronomical observation in physical cosmology that: (1) all objects observed in deep space (interstellar space) are found to have a doppler shift observable relative velocity to Earth, and to each other; and (2) that this doppler-shift-measured velocity, of various galaxies receding from the Earth, is proportional to their distance from the Earth and all other interstellar bodies. In effect, the space-time volume of the observable universe is expanding and Hubble's law is the direct physical observation of this process. It is considered the first observational basis for the expanding space paradigm and today serves as one of the pieces of evidence most often cited in support of the Big Bang model.Although widely attributed to Edwin Hubble, the law was first derived from the General Relativity equations by Georges Lemaître in a 1927 article where he proposed that the Universe is expanding and suggested an estimated value of the rate of expansion, now called the Hubble constant. Two years later Edwin Hubble confirmed the existence of that law and determined a more accurate value for the constant that now bears his name. The recession velocity of the objects was inferred from their redshifts, many measured earlier by Vesto Slipher (1917) and related to velocity by him. The law is often expressed by the equation v = H0D, with H0 the constant of proportionality (the Hubble constant) between the "proper distance" D to a galaxy (which can change over time, unlike the comoving distance) and its velocity v (i.e. the derivative of proper distance with respect to cosmological time coordinate; see Uses of the proper distance for some discussion of the subtleties of this definition of 'velocity'). The SI unit of H0 is s-1 but it is most frequently quoted in (km/s)/Mpc, thus giving the speed in km/s of a galaxy 1 megaparsec (3.09×1019 km) away. The reciprocal of H0 is the Hubble time.A recent 2011 estimate of the Hubble constant, which used a new infrared camera on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to measure the distance and redshift for a collection of astronomical objects, gives a value of H0 = 73.8 ± 2.4 (km/s)/Mpc. An alternate approach using data from galactic clusters gave a value of H0 = 67.0 ± 3.2 (km/s)/Mpc.An observational determination of the Hubble constant obtained in 2010 based on measurements of gravitational lensing by using the HST yielded a value of H0 = 72.6 ± 3.1 (km/s)/Mpc. WMAP seven-year results, also from 2010, gave an estimate of H0 = 71.0 ± 2.5 (km/s)/Mpc based on WMAP data alone, and an estimate of H0 = 70.4 +1.3 -1.4 (km/s)/Mpc based on WMAP data with Gaussian priors based on earlier estimates from other studies. In 2009 also using the Hubble Space Telescope the measure was 74.2 ± 3.6 (km/s)/Mpc.The results agree closely with an earlier measurement, based on observations by the HST of Cepheid variable stars, of H0 = 72 ± 8 km/s/Mpc obtained in 2001. In August 2006, a less-precise figure was obtained independently using data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory: H0 = 77 (km/s)/Mpc or about 2.5×10-18 s-1 with an uncertainty of ± 15%. NASA's WMAP site summarizes existing data to indicate a constant of 70.8 ± 1.6 (km/s)/Mpc if space is assumed to be flat, or 70.8 ± 4.0 (km/s)/Mpc otherwise, although these estimates have been on the site since January 2007 and may not take into account the more recent studies discussed above. Cite error: There are tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{Reflist}} template or a tag; see the help page.
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