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Water desalination Methods Distillation Multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) Multiple-effect distillation (MED|ME) Vapor-compression (VC) Ion exchange Membrane processes Electrodialysis reversal (EDR) Reverse osmosis (RO) Nanofiltration (NF) Membrane distillation (MD) Forward osmosis (FO) Freezing desalination Geothermal desalination Solar desalination Solar humidification-Dehumidification (HDH) Multiple-effect humidification (MEH) Methane hydrate crystallization High grade water recycling Seawater greenhouse Desalination, desalinization, and desalinisation refer to any of several processes that remove some amount of salt and other minerals from saline water. More generally, desalination may also refer to the removal of salts and minerals, as in soil desalination.Salt water is desalinated to produce fresh water suitable for human consumption or irrigation. One potential byproduct of desalination is salt. Desalination is used on many seagoing ships and submarines. Most of the modern interest in desalination is focused on developing cost-effective ways of providing fresh water for human use. Along with recycled wastewater, this is one of the few rainfall-independent water sources.Due to relatively high energy consumption the cost of desalinating sea water are generally higher than the alternatives (fresh water from rivers or groundwater, water recycling and water conservation), but alternatives are not always available.Desalination is particularly relevant to dry countries such as Australia, which traditionally have relied on collecting rainfall behind dams to provide their drinking water supplies.According to the International Desalination Association, in June 2011, 15,988 desalination plants operated worldwide, producing 66.5 million cubic meters per day, providing water for 300 million people. Production is expected to reach 120 million m3 by 2020; some 40 million m3 is planned for the Middle East. The world's largest desalination plant is the Jebel Ali Desalination Plant (Phase 2) in the United Arab Emirates. The largest percent of desalinated water used in any country is in Israel, which produces 50% of its domestic water use from seawater desalination Schematic of a multistage flash desalinator A – steam in B – seawater in C – potable water out D – waste out E – steam out F – heat exchange G – condensation collection H – brine heater Plan of a typical reverse osmosis desalination plant Cite error: There are tags on this page, but the references will not show without a {{reflist}} template (see the help page).
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