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Hipparcos

Hipparcos Mission type Astrometric observatory Operator ESA COSPAR ID 1989-062B SATCAT ? 20169 Website sci.esa.int/hipparcos/ Mission duration 4 years, 1 week Spacecraft properties Manufacturer Alenia Spazio Matra Marconi Space Launch mass 1,140 kg (2,510 lb)  Dry mass 635 kg (1,400 lb)  Payload mass 210 kg (460 lb)  Power 295 watts  Start of mission Launch date 23:25:53, August 8, 1989 (1989-08-08T23:25:53) Rocket Ariane 4 44LP (V-33/405) Launch site Kourou ELA-2 Contractor Arianespace End of mission Disposal decommissioned Deactivated August 15, 1993 (1993-08-15) Orbital parameters Reference system Geocentric Regime Geostationary transfer orbit Semi-major axis 24,519 km (15,235 mi) Eccentricity 0.720 Perigee 500.3 km (310.9 mi) Apogee 35,797.5 km (22,243.5 mi) Inclination 6.84 degrees Period 636.9 minutes RAAN 72.93 degrees Argument of perigee 161.89 degrees Mean anomaly 250.97 degrees Mean motion 2.26 rev/day Epoch 16 June 2015, 13:45:39 UTC Revolution number 17830 Main telescope Type Schmidt telescope Diameter 29 cm (11 in) Focal length 1.4 m (4.6 ft) Wavelengths visible light Transponders Band S Band Bandwidth 2-23kbit/s Hipparcos was a scientific satellite of the European Space Agency (ESA), launched in 1989 and operated until 1993. It was the first space experiment devoted to precision astrometry, the accurate measurement of the positions of celestial objects on the sky. This permitted the accurate determination of proper motions and parallaxes of stars, allowing a determination of their distance and tangential velocity. When combined with radial-velocity measurements from spectroscopy, this pinpointed all six quantities needed to determine the motion of stars. The resulting Hipparcos Catalogue, a high-precision catalogue of more than 118,200 stars, was published in 1997. The lower-precision Tycho Catalogue of more than a million stars was published at the same time, while the enhanced Tycho-2 Catalogue of 2.5 million stars was published in 2000. Hipparcos??'? follow-up mission, Gaia, was launched in 2013.The word "Hipparcos" is an acronym for High precision parallax collecting satellite and also a reference to the ancient Greek astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea, who is noted for applications of trigonometry to astronomy and his discovery of the precession of the equinoxes. ^ a b c d European Space Agency (June 1997). "The Hipparcos and Tycho Catalogues" (PDF). ESA. Retrieved 2014-06-16.  ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "HIPPARCOS Satellite details 1989-062B NORAD 20169". N2YO. 16 June 2015. Retrieved 16 June 2015.  ^ Perryman, Michael (2010). Khanna, Ramon, ed. The Making of History's Greatest Star Map. Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-11602-5. ISBN 9783642116018.
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