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This article needs attention from an expert in Philosophy or Business. Please add a reason or a talk parameter to this template to explain the issue with the article. WikiProject Philosophy or WikiProject Business (or their Portals) may be able to help recruit an expert. (February 2009) Part of a series on Governance Models Collaborative Good Multistakeholder Open-source Private By level Local Global By field Climate Clinical Corporate Data Earth system Ecclesiastical Environmental Higher education Information Network Ocean Political party Project Self Service-oriented architecture Soil Technology Transnational Website Measures World Governance Index Sustainable Governance Indicators Related topics Chief governance officer Governance, risk management and compliance E-governance Environmental, social and corporate governance Market governance mechanism v t e Governance refers to "all processes of governing, whether undertaken by a government, market or network, whether over a family, tribe, formal or informal organization or territory and whether through laws, norms, power or language." It relates to processes and decisions that seek to define actions, grant power and verify performance.In general terms, governance occurs in three broad ways:# Through networks involving public-private partnerships (PPP) or with the collaboration of community organisations;# Through the use of market mechanisms whereby market principles of competition serve to allocate resources while operating under government regulation;# Through top-down methods that primarily involve governments and the state bureaucracy.To distinguish the term governance from government: "governance" is the concrete activity that reproduces a formal or informal organization. If the organization is a formal one, governance is primarily about what the relevant "governing body" does. If the organization is an informal one, such as a market, governance is primarily about the rules and norms that guide the relevant activity. Whether the organization is a geopolitical entity (nation-state), a corporate entity (business entity), a socio-political entity (chiefdom, tribe, family, etc.), or an informal one, its governance is the way the rules and actions are produced, sustained, and regulated. ^ Bevir, Mark (2013). Governance: A very short introduction. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.
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