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Russia

Coordinates: 60°N 90°E? / ?60°N 90°E? / 60; 90 Russian Federation ?????????? ????????? Rossiyskaya Federatsiya Flag Coat of arms Anthem:  "??????????????? ???? ?????????? ?????????" "Gosudarstvennyy gimn Rossiyskoy Federatsii"  (transliteration) "State Anthem of the Russian Federation" Sorry, your browser either has JavaScript disabled or does not have any supported player. You can download the clip or download a player to play the clip in your browser. Russia proper (dark green) Crimean peninsula (disputed) (light green)a Capital and largest city Moscow 55°45'N 37°37'E? / ?55.750°N 37.617°E? / 55.750; 37.617 Official languages Russian Recognised languages 27 other languages co-official in various regions Ethnic groups (2010) 81.0% Russian 3.7% Tatar 1.4% Ukrainian 1.1% Bashkir 1.0% Chuvash 0.8% Chechen 11.0% others / unspecified Demonym Russians (Rossiyane) Government Federal semi-presidential constitutional republic  -  President Vladimir Putin  -  Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev  -  Chairman of the Federation Council Valentina Matviyenko  -  Chairman of the State Duma Sergey Naryshkin Legislature Federal Assembly  -  Upper house Federation Council  -  Lower house State Duma Formation  -  Arrival of Rurik, considered as a foundation event by the Russian authorities 862   -  Kievan Rus' 882   -  Grand Duchy of Moscow 1283   -  Tsardom of Russia 16 January 1547   -  Russian Empire 22 October 1721   -  Russian SFSR 6 November 1917   -  Soviet Union 10 December 1922   -  Russian Federation 25 December 1991   -  Adoption of the current Constitution of Russia 12 December 1993  Area  -  Total 17,098,242 (Crimea not included) km2 (1st) 6,592,800 (Crimea not included) sq mi  -  Water (%) 13 (including swamps) Population  -  2014 estimate 143,800,000 (not including Crimea and Sevastopol) (9th)  -  Density 8.4/km2 (217th) 21.5/sq mi GDP (PPP) 2014 estimate  -  Total $3.559 trillion (6th)  -  Per capita $24,764 (46th) GDP (nominal) 2014 estimate  -  Total $2.057 trillion (9th)  -  Per capita $14,317 (53rd) Gini (2011) 41.7 medium · 83rd HDI (2013)  0.778 high · 57th Currency Russian ruble (RUB) Time zone (UTC+3 to +12b) Date format dd.mm.yyyy Drives on the right Calling code +7 ISO 3166 code RU Internet TLD .ru .su .?? a. The Crimean Peninsula is recognized as territory of Ukraine by most of the international community, but is de facto administered by Russia. b. Excluding +5. Russia i/'r???/ or /'r???/ (Russian: ??????, tr. Rossiya; IPA:  ( listen)), also officially known as the Russian Federation (Russian: ?????????? ?????????, tr. Rossiyskaya Federatsiya; IPA:  ( listen)), is a country in northern Eurasia. It is a federal semi-presidential republic. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia, and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk, the US state of Alaska across the Bering Strait and Canada's Arctic islands. At 17,075,400 square kilometres (6,592,800 sq mi), Russia is the largest country in the world, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area. Russia is also the world's ninth most populous nation with 143 million people as of 2012. Extending across the entirety of northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans nine time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms.The nation's history began with that of the East Slavs, who emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde, and came to dominate the cultural and political legacy of Kievan Rus'. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland in Europe to Alaska in North America.Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Soviet Union, the world's first constitutionally socialist state and a recognized superpower, which played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, and the first man in space. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality of the Union state.The Russian economy ranks as the ninth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2014. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources, the largest reserves in the world, have made it one of the largest producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power and a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, a member of the G20, the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Community, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States. ^ Cite error: The named reference perepis-2010.ru was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ ???? ?????????? ?? "? ???????????? 1150-????? ?????????? ?????????? ?????????????????" (Russian) ^ "The Russian federation: general characteristics". Federal State Statistics Service. Archived from the original on 28 July 2011. Retrieved 5 April 2008.  ^ http://www.gks.ru/bgd/free/B14_00/IssWWW.exe/Stg//%3Cextid%3E/%3Cstoragepath%3E::%7Cdk06/8-0.doc ^ a b c d http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2014/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?pr.x=19&pr.y=7&sy=2013&ey=2014&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=922&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC&grp=0&a= ^ "Distribution of family income – Gini index". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 5 January 2014.  ^ "2014 Human Development Report Summary". United Nations Development Programme. 2014. pp. 21–25. Retrieved 27 July 2014.  ^ Taylor, Adam. "Crimea has joined the ranks of the world's 'gray areas.' Here are the others on that list.". The Washington Post. Retrieved 27 March 2014.  ^ "The names Russian Federation and Russia shall be equal". "The Constitution of the Russian Federation". (Article 1). Retrieved 25 June 2009.  ^ "Russia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 January 2008.  ^ (Russian) Official estimate as of 1 September 2012. ^ "Russia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 31 January 2008.  ^ a b Excerpted from Glenn E. Curtis (ed.) (1998). "Russia: A Country Study: Kievan Rus' and Mongol Periods". Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Retrieved 20 July 2007.  ^ Michael Prawdin and Gérard Chaliand, The Mongol Empire: Its Rise and Legacy (2005) pp. 512–550 ^ Rein Taagepera (1997). "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia". International Studies Quarterly 41 (3): 475–504. doi:10.1111/0020-8833.00053.  ^ Peter Turchin, Thomas D. Hall and Jonathan M. Adams, "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires", Journal of World-Systems Research Vol. 12 (no. 2), pp. 219–229 (2006). ^ Jonathan R. Adelman; Cristann Lea Gibson (1 July 1989). Contemporary Soviet Military Affairs: The Legacy of World War II. Unwin Hyman. p. 4. ISBN 978-0-04-445031-3. Retrieved 15 June 2012.  ^ Weinberg, G. L. (1995). A World at Arms: A Global History of World War II. Cambridge University Press. p. 264. ISBN 0-521-55879-4.  ^ Rozhnov, Konstantin, "Who won World War II?". BBC. ^ Cite error: The named reference uk was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ GDP, PPP (current international $) | Data | Table ^ "Commission of the Russian Federation for UNESCO: Panorama of Russia". Unesco.ru. Retrieved 29 October 2010.  ^ Cite error: The named reference IEA-Oil was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference cia-gas was invoked but never defined (see the help page). ^ Cite error: The named reference fas was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
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